Ciconia is a genus of birds in the stork family. Six of the seven living species occur in the Old World (Europe, Asia, Africa), but the Maguari Stork has a South American range.
These are large storks, typically 100 cm tall, with a 180 cm wingspan and a long thick bill. Members of this genus are more variable in plumage than other storks, but several species have black upper bodies and wings, and white bellies and undertail. Juveniles are a duller, browner version of the adult.
Ciconia storks are gregarious and colonial breeders, and pairs stay together for life. They typically build large stick nests in trees, although the Maguari Stork will nest on the ground and at least three species will construct their nests in human habitations. One of these, the White Stork, is probably the best-known of all storks, with a wealth of legend and folklore associated with this familiar visitor to Europe.
Ciconia storks feed on frogs, insects, young birds, lizards, and rodents. They fly with their necks outstretched, like most other storks, but unlike herons which retract their neck in flight.
The migratory species like the White Stork and the Black Stork soar on broad wings and rely on thermals of hot air for sustained long-distance flight. Since thermals only form over land, these storks, like large raptors, must cross the Mediterranean at the narrowest points, and many of these birds can be seen going through the Straits of Gibraltar and the Bosphorus on migration.
- Abdim’s Stork, Ciconia abdomen
- Woolly-necked Stork, Ciconia episcopus
- Storm’s Stork, Ciconia stormi
- Maguari Stork, Ciconia maguari
- Oriental White Stork, Ciconia boyciana
- White Stork Ciconia ciconia
- Black Stork Ciconia nigra
The fossil record of the genus is extensive, indicating that Ciconia storks were once more widespread than they are today. Although the known material tends to suggest that the genus evolved around the Atlantic, possibly in Western Europe or North Africa, the comparative lack of fossil sites in Asia makes this assumption not well-founded presently. All that can be said is that by the Early Pliocene, Ciconia was widespread at least all over the Northern Hemisphere
Fossil members of the genus include:
- Ciconias? minor (Early Miocene of Rusinga Island, Kenya)
- Ciconias sarmantica (Late Miocene of Romania)
- Ciconias sp. 1 (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
- Ciconias sp. 2 (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
- Ciconias? gaudryi (Early Pliocene of Pikermi, Greece)
- Ciconias? kahli (Early Pliocene of South Africa)
- Ciconias lucida (Middle Pliocene of Mongolia)
- Asphalt Stork, Ciconia maltha (Late Pliocene – Late Pleistocene of W and S USA)
- Ciconias stehlini (Early Pleistocene of Hungary)
- Ciconia nana (Late Pleistocene of Australia) – formerly Xenorhynchus
Remains found in the Late Pleistocene deposits of San Josecito Cavern (Mexico) may also belong to this genus (Steadman et al. 1994). The proposed fossil genus Prociconia from Brazil, also of the Late Pleistocene age, maybe a junior synonym of either this genus or Jabiru. A Ciconia bone found in a rock shelter on Réunion was probably of a bird taken there as food by early settlers; no known account mentions the presence of storks on the Mascarenes.
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