Javan Hawk-eagles

Javan Hawk-eagles (Nisaetus Bartelsi)

The Javan Hawk-eagles, Nisaetus Bartelsi (earlier under Spizaetus) is the national bird of Indonesia. The scientific name commemorates Hans Bartels.

Javan Hawk-eagles Standing on Man Hand
Javan Hawk-eagles Standing on Man Hand


The Javan Hawk-eagle is a medium-sized, approximately 61cm long, dark brown raptor in the family Accipitridae. It has a long crest, rufous head and neck, and heavily barred black below. The crest is black with a white tip. Males and females look alike. The young is duller and has unmarked underparts.


Distribution / Range

An Indonesian endemic, the Javan Hawk-eagle is distributed in the humid tropical forests of Java. Because of the plumage variability of the Spizaetus eagle, the Javan Hawk-eagle was not recognized as a full species until 1953.

Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size, limited range, and hunting in some areas, the Javan Hawk-eagle is evaluated as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed in Appendix II of CITES.


Breeding / Nesting

One of the rarest of all raptors, the Javan Hawk-eagle is believed to be a monogamous species. The female usually lays one egg in a nest high on top of forest trees. The diet consists mainly of birds, lizards, fruit bats, and mammals.

Javan Hawk-eagles Image
Javan Hawk-eagle Image


  1. BirdLife International (2004). Spizaetus bartelsi. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 3 December 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangeredHelbig AJ, Kocum A, Seibold I and Braun MJ (2005) A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive paraphyly at the genus level. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 35(1):147-164 PDF


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Gordon Ramel

Gordon is an ecologist with two degrees from Exeter University. He's also a teacher, a poet and the owner of 1,152 books. Oh - and he wrote this website.

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