The Classification of Fishes


 

There are about 28,100 species of fishes known to science, they are divided into 4 classes, 59 orders, 490 families and 4,300 or so genera. The classification system of fish is not stagnant and it will change when we have more knowledge, perhaps from DNA analyses. For ordinary purpose however the system I have used on these pages will be sufficient for many years. It is based on Fishes of The World (3rd Edition) by Joseph S. Nelson 1994.

 

 

 

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Introduction Classes Myxini & Cephalspidomorphi Class Chondrichthyes Class Osteichthyes


 
 

Introduction

Welcome to this brief introduction to the classification of fishes. There are a few problems with the classification of fish, the first of which is the question 'What is a fish'? We all use the term Fish regularly but the term fish is not a natural group of animals in the way the terms Reptiles or Birds are.

When scientists arrange living things into groups for classification they try to make the classification system they use represent the actual relationships between those living things. The more categories that two organisms share the more closely they are related.

All living things are divided up into a series of classifications delineated as:- Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and species. You can also have Super and Sub attached to each group so that a Superclass can contain several Classes each of which itself contains several Subclasses, Subclasses then contain Superorders which contain Orders etc. So you see we can end up with a lot of different terms, which is good because there are a lot of living things.

The term 'Fish' does not fit into any of these categories. This is because it is a general term not a scientific one. We all know that a Trout or a Salmon is a fish, however some of the animals we commonly call fish are not much more closely related to Salmon and Trout than they are to Dogs and Cats. The term fish is actually used to describe any animal that is part of the Subphylum Vertebrata but is not a member of the Classes Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves (Birds) or Mammalia. The Subphylum Vertebrata contains two Superclasses, Agnatha and Gnathostomata. The Superclass Agnatha contains only two Classes of animals both of which come under the general term of fish. The superclass Gnathostomata contains six Classes of animals two of which are also included in the general term of fish.


 

 

 

Higher Classification of the Phylum Chordata
Phylum Subphylum Superclass Class Common Name
Chordata Urochordata --- --- Tunicates
Chordata Cephalochordata --- --- Lancelets
Chordata Vertebrata Agnatha Myxini Hagfish (Fish)
Chordata Vertebrata Agnatha Cephalspidomorphi Lampreys (Fish)
Chordata Vertebrata Gnathostomata Chondrichthyes Sharks and Rays etc. (Fish)
Chordata Vertebrata Gnathostomata Osteichthyes Trout and Salmon etc. (Fish)
Chordata Vertebrata Gnathostomata Amphibia Amphibians
Chordata Vertebrata Gnathostomata Reptilia Snakes, Turtles etc.
Chordata Vertebrata Gnathostomata Aves Birds
Chordata Vertebrata Gnathostomata Mammalia Cats, Cows and People

The animals we commonly refer to as fish then can be seen to be included in 4 classes of animals that are as different from each other as Birds are from Reptiles, but because they all live in the sea they get lumped together. below is a list of all the families of animals we call fish. If you want an entire checklist for the world, or to research a particular species you need to visit www.fishbol.org. Clicking on the name of the family below will take you to a brief description of the family some time in the future.

When talking about, and reading about species of fish when only a common name is given you need to be careful. Many people know that Bonito is a type of tuna. However in Fishbol 2004 we find that all the following 20 species are all called Bonito somewhere in the world. Abramites eques, Auxis rochei rochei, Auxis thazard thazard, Caranx crysos, Cybiosarda elegans, Euthynnus affinis, Euthynnus alletteratus, Euthynnus lineatus, Gymnosarda unicolo, Katsuwonus pelamis, Megalaspis cordyla, Orcynopsis unicolor, Rachycentron canadum, Sarda australis, Sarda chiliensis chiliensis, Sarda chiliensis lineolata, Sarda orientalis, Sarda sarda, Selar boops, Thunnus alalunga.

This is not just a list of the different species called bonito in different parts of the world. In many countries more than one species is known as Bonito, in fact in England, Australia and Cuba the term Bonito applies to 3 different species, in Kenya, Namibia, Brazil and Germany is applies to 4 different species, in Colombia and Mexico Bonito includes 5 species and in the USA the name Bonito is applied to 10 different species.

When you add to this the fact that the same species is also called different names in different countries the problem of knowing exactly what species a common name refers to can get quite difficult. For Instance:- Katsuwonus pelamis is

Striped bonito, Ocean Bonito, Oceanic Bonito, Arctic Bonito and Bonito in the USA,

Striped-bellied Bonito, Striped Bonito, Oceanic Bonito, Atlantic Bonito and Bonito in England,

Bauchstreifiger Bonito in Germany,

Bonitol, Bonito de altura, Bonito de veintre rayado and Bonito del sur in Spain,

Bonito, Bonito de barriga listada, Bonito-de-barriga-riscada, Bonito de veintre rayado, Bonito-oceānico and Bonito rajado in Brazil,

White Bonito in both Barbados and Suriname

The term 'Bonito' is also used in Cape Verde, Sri Lanka, Dominican Republic, French Polynesia, India, Namibia, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, South Africa, Venezuela and more.

Katsuwonus pelamis has many more names than I have listed here, but I think this is enough to illustrate my point on the unreliability of common names, particularly for marine, or other widely distributed species.

Class Myxini
Order Family Common Names
MyxiniformesMyxinidaeHagfish

Class Cephalaspidomorphi
Order Family Common Names
Petromyzontiformes Petromyzontidae Northern Lampreys
Petromyzontiformes Geotriidae Pouched Lampreys
Petromyzontiformes Mordaciidae Shorthead Lampreys

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Class Chondrichthyes
Order Family Common Names
Hexachiformes Chlamydoselachidae Frill Skark
Hexachiformes Hexanchidae Sixgill and Sevengill Sharks
Squaliformes Echinorhinidae Bramble Sharks
Squaliformes Squalidae Dogfish Sharks
Squaliformes Oxynotidae Rough Sharks
Pristiophoriformes Pristiophoridae Saw Sharks
Heterodontiformes Heterodontidae Horn Sharks, Bullhead Sharks
Orectolobiformes Parascylliidae Collared Carpet Sharks
Orectolobiformes Brachaeluridae Blind Sharks
Orectolobiformes Orectolobidae Wobbegongs
Orectolobiformes Hemiscylliidae Longtail Carpet Sharks
Orectolobiformes Stegostomatidae Zebra Sharks
Orectolobiformes Ginglymostomatidae Nurse Sharks
Orectolobiformes Rhincodontidae Whale Shark
Lamniformes Odontaspididae Sand Tigers, Grey Nurse Sharks
Lamniformes Mitsukurinidae Goblin Shark
Lamniformes Pseudocarchariidae Crocodile Shark
Lamniformes Megachasmidae Megamouth Shark
Lamniformes Alopiidae Thresher Sharks
Lamniformes Cetorhinidae Basking Shark
Lamniformes Lamnidae Mackeral Sharks, Makos
Carcharhiniformes Scyliorhinidae Catsharks
Carcharhiniformes Proscylliidae Finback Catsharks
Carcharhiniformes Pseudotriakidae False Catshark
Carcharhiniformes Leptochariidae Barbled Houndshark
Carcharhiniformes Triakidae Houndsharks
Carcharhiniformes Hemigaleidae Weasel Sharks
Carcharhiniformes Carcharhinidae Requiem Sharks, Whaler Sharks
Carcharhiniformes Sphyrnidae Hammerhead Sharks
Squatiniformes Squatinidae Angel Sharks
Rhinobatiformes Platyrhinidae Platyrhinids
Rhinobatiformes Rhinobatidae Guitarfishes
Rhinobatiformes Rhynchobatidae Sharkfin Guitarfishes
Rajiformes Rajidae Skates
Pristiformes Pristidae Sawfishes
Torpediniformes Torpedinidae Electric Rays
Torpediniformes Hypnidae Coffinrays
Torpediniformes Narcinidae Narcinids
Torpediniformes Narkidae Narkids
Myliobatiformes Potamotrygonidae River Rays
Myliobatiformes Dasyatididae Stingrays
Myliobatiformes Urolophidae Round Stingrays
Myliobatiformes Gymnuridae Butterfly Rays
Myliobatiformes Hexatrygonidae Sixgill Rays
Myliobatiformes Myliobatididae Eagle Rays
Myliobatiformes Rhinopteridae Cownose Rays
Myliobatiformes Mobulidae Devil Rays, Mantas
Chimaeriformes Callorhynchidae Plownose Chimaeras, Elephant Fishes
Chimaeriformes Chimaeridae Shortnose Chimaeras, Ghost Sharks, Ratfishes
Chimaeriformes Rhincochimaeridae Longnose Chimaeras, Spookfishes

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Class Osteichthyes
Order Family Common Names
Ceratodontiformes Ceratodontidae Australian Lungfish
Lepidosireniformes Lepidosirenidae South American Lungfishes
Lepidosireniformes Prototeridae African Lungfishes
Coelacanthiformes Coelacanthidae Coelacanth
Polypteriformes Polypteridae Bichirs
Acipenseriformes Acipenseridae Sturgeons
Acipenseriformes Polyodontidae Paddlefishes
Lepisosteiformes Lepisosteidae Gars
Amiiformes Amiidae Bowfin
Hiodontiformes Hiodontidae Mooneyes
Osteoglossiformes Osteoglossidae Bonytongues
Osteoglossiformes Pantodontidae Freshwater Butterfly Fish
Osteoglossiformes Notopteridae Featherbacks
Osteoglossiformes Mormyridae Elephantfishes
Osteoglossiformes Gymnarchidae Aba
Elopiformes Elopidae Tenpounders, Ladyfishes
Elopiformes Megalopidae Tarpons
Albuliformes Abulidae Bonefishes
Notacanthiformes Halosauridae Halosaurs
Notacanthiformes Notocanthidae Spiny Eels
Anguilliformes Anguillidae Freshwater Eels
Anguilliformes Heterenchelyidae Shortfaced Eels
Anguilliformes Moringuidae Spaghetti Eels
Anguilliformes Chlopsidae False Moray Eels
Anguilliformes Myrocongridae Myrocongrid
Anguilliformes Muraenidae Moray Eels
Anguilliformes Nemichthyidae Snipe Eels
Anguilliformes Muraenesocidae Pike Eels
Anguilliformes Synaphobranchidae Cutthroat Eels
Anguilliformes Ophichthidae Snake Eels, Worm Eels
Anguilliformes Nettastomaridae Duckbill Eels
Anguilliformes Colocongridae Colcongrids
Anguilliformes Congridae Congor Eels, Garden Eels
Anguilliformes Derichthyidae Narrowneck Eels, Spoonbill eels
Anguilliformes Serrivomeridae Sawtooth Eels
Anguilliformes Cyematidae Bobtail Snipe Eels
Anguilliformes Saccopharyngidae Swallowers
Anguilliformes Eurypharyngidae Gulper Eels
Anguilliformes Monognathidae Singlejaw Eels
Culpeiformes Denticipitidae Denticle Herrings
Culpeiformes Clupeidae Herrings, Pilchards, Sardines
Culpeiformes Engraulididae Anchovies
Culpeiformes Chirocentridae Wolf Herrings
Gonorhynchiformes Chanidae Milkfish
Gonorhynchiformes Gonorhynchidae Beaked Salmons
Gonorhynchiformes Kneriidae Shellears
Gonorhynchiformes Phractolaemidae Hingemouth
Cypriniformes Cyprinidae Carps, Minnows
Cypriniformes Psilorhynchidae Psilorhynchids
Cypriniformes Balitoridae Hillstream Loaches
Cypriniformes Cobitidae Loaches
Cypriniformes Gyrinocheilidae Algae Eaters
Cypriniformes Catostomidae Suckers
Characiformes Acestrorhynchidae Characins
Characiformes Citharinidae Citharinids
Characiformes Distichodontidae Distichodontins, African Fin Eaters
Characiformes Hepsetidae African Pike Charicin
Characiformes Erythrinidae Trahiras and Allies
Characiformes Ctenoluciidae American Pike Characins
Characiformes Lebiasinidae Voladoras, Pencil Fishes
Characiformes Characidae African Tetras, Characins, Tetras, Brycons, Piranhas and allies
Characiformes Curimatidae Toothless Characins
Characiformes Prochilodontidae Flannelmoth Characins
Characiformes Anastomidae Anastomins, Leporinins
Characiformes Hemiodontidae Hemiodontids
Characiformes Chilodontidae Headstanders
Characiformes Gasteroplecidae Freshwater Hatchetfishes
Siluriformes Diplomystidae Velvet Catfishes
Siluriformes Nematogenyidae Mountain Catfish
Siluriformes Trichomycteridae Spinyhead Catfishes, Candirus
Siluriformes Callicthyidae Plated Catfishes
Siluriformes Scoloplacidae Spinynose Catfishes
Siluriformes Astroblepidae Andes Catfishes
Siluriformes Loricariidae Armoured Suckermouth Catfishes
Siluriformes Ictaluridae Bullhead Catfishes, Madtoms
Siluriformes Bagridae Bagrid Catfishes
Siluriformes Cranoglanididae Armouhead Catfishes
Siluriformes Siluridae Sheatfishes, Wels, Glass Catfishes
Siluriformes Schilbidae Schilbid Catfishes
Siluriformes Pangasiidae Pangasid Catfishes
Siluriformes Amblycipitidae Torrent Catfishes
Siluriformes Amphilliidae Loach Catfishes
Siluriformes Akysidae Asian Banjo Catfishes
Siluriformes Sisoridae Hillstream Catfishes
Siluriformes Clariidae Labyrinth Catfishes, Airbreathing Catfishes
Siluriformes Heteropneustidae Airsac Catfishes
Siluriformes Chacidae Angler Catfishes, Squarehead Catfishes
Siluriformes Olyridae Olyrid Catfishes
Siluriformes Malapteruridae Electric Catfishes
Siluriformes Ariidae Sea Catfishes
Siluriformes Plotosidae Eeltail Catfishes
Siluriformes Mochokidae Upsidedown Catfishes, Squeakers
Siluriformes Doradidae Thorny Catfishes
Siluriformes Auchenipteridae Wood Catfishes
Siluriformes Pimelodidae Shovelnose Catfishes, Longwhisker
Siluriformes Ageneiosidae Bottlenose Catfishes, Barbelless Catfishes
Siluriformes Helogenidae Halogene Catfishes
Siluriformes Cetopsidae Shark Catfishes, Carneros
Siluriformes Hypophthalmidae Loweye Catfishes
Siluriformes Aspredinidae Banjo Catfishes
Siluriformes Sternopygidae Longtail Knifefishes
Siluriformes Rhamphichthyidae Longsnout Knifefishes
Siluriformes Hypopomidae Bluntnose Knifefishes
Siluriformes Apternotidae Black Knifefishes
Siluriformes Gymnotidae Banded Knifefishes
Siluriformes Electrophoridae Electric Eel, Electric Knifefish
Argentiniformes Argentinidae Herring Smelts
Argentiniformes Microstomatidae Deepsea Smelts
Argentiniformes Opisthoproctidae Barreleyes, Spookfishes
Argentiniformes Alepocephalidae Slickheads
Argentiniformes Bathyloconidae Bathylaconids
Argentiniformes Platytrochidae Tubeshoulders
Salmoniformes Osmeridae Northern Smelts, Ayu
Salmoniformes Slangidae Icefishes, Noodlefishes
Salmoniformes Retropinnidae Southern Smelts
Salmoniformes Glaxiidae Glaxiids
Salmoniformes Lepidogalaxiidae Salamanderfish
Salmoniformes Salmonidae Chars, Trout, Salmon, Whitefishes
Esociformes Esocidae Pikes
Esociformes Umbridae Mudminnows
Ateleopodiformes Ateleopodidae Jellynose Fishes
Stomiiforms Gonostomatidae Lightfishes, Bristlemouths
Stomiiforms Sternoptychidae Hatchetfishes and allies
Stomiiforms Phosichthyidae Lightfishes
Stomiiforms Stomiidae Viperfishes, Dragonfishes, Snaggletooths, Loosejaws
Aulopiformes Aulopidae Aulopids
Aulopiformes Bathysauridae Bathysaurids
Aulopiformes Chlorphthalmidae Greeneyes
Aulopiformes Ipnopidae Ipnopids, Tripod Fishes
Aulopiformes Synodontidae Lizardfishes, Bombay duck
Aulopiformes Scopelarchidae Pearleyes
Aulopiformes Notosudidae Waryfishes
Aulopiformes Giganturidae Telescope Fishes
Aulopiformes Paralepididae Barracudinas
Aulopiformes Anotopteridae Daggertooth
Aulopiformes Evermannellidae Sabertooth Fishes
Aulopiformes Omosudidae Omosudid
Aulopiformes Alepisauridae Lancetfishes
Aulopiformes Pseudotrichonotidae Pseudotrichonotids
Myctophiformes Neoscopelidae Neoscopelids
Myctophiformes Myctophidae Lanternfishes
Lampridiformes Lamprididae Opahs
Lampridiformes Veliferidae Velifers
Lampridiformes Lophotidae Crestfishes
Lampridiformes Radiicephalidae Inkfishes
Lampridiformes Trachipteridae Ribbonfishes
Lampridiformes Regalecidae Oarfishes
Lampridiformes Stylephoridae Tube eye
Polymixiiformes Polymixiidae Beardfishes
Percopsiformes Percopsidae Troutperches
Percopsiformes Aphredoderidae Pirate Perch
Percopsiformes Amblyopsidae Cavefishes
Gadiformes Muraenolepididae Muraenolepidids
Gadiformes Moridae Morid Eels, Moras
Gadiformes Melanonidae Melanonids
Gadiformes Euclichthyidae Euclichthyid
Gadiformes Bregmacerotidae Codlets
Gadiformes Gadidae Codfishes, Haddocks and allies
Gadiformes Merlucciidae Hakes
Gadiformes Steindachneriidae Steindachneriid
Gadiformes Macrouridae Rattails, Grenadiers
Ophidiiformes Ophidiidae Brotulas, Cuskeels and allies
Ophidiiformes Carapidae Pearlfishes
Ophidiiformes Bythitidae Livebearing Brotulas
Ophidiiformes Aphyonidae Aphyonids
Batrachoidiformes Batrachoididae Midshipmen, Toadfishes
Lophiiformes Lophiidae Goosefishes, Monkfishes
Lophiiformes Antennariidae Frogfishes, Shallow Anglerfishes
Lophiiformes Tetrabrachiidae Humpback Angler
Lophiiformes Lophichthyidae Lophichthyid
Lophiiformes Brachionichthyidae Warty Anglers, Handfishes
Lophiiformes Chaunacidae Coffinfishes, Gapers, Seatoads
Lophiiformes Ogcocephalidae Batfishes
Lophiiformes Caulophryndae Fanfin Anglers
Lophiiformes Ceratiidae Seadevils
Lophiiformes Gigantactinidae Whipnose Anglers
Lophiiformes Neoceratiidae Needlebeard Angler
Lophiiformes Linophrynidae Netdevils
Lophiiformes Oneirodidae Dreamers
Lophiiformes Thaumatichthyidae Wolftrap Angler
Lophiiformes Centrophrynidae Hollowchin Anglers
Lophiiformes Diceratiidae Double Anglers
Lophiiformes Himantolophidae Footballfishes
Lophiiformes Melanocetidae Blackdevils
Gobiesociformes Gobiesocidae Clingfishes
Gobiesociformes Callionymidae Dragonets
Gobiesociformes Draconettidae Draconettids
Cyprinodontiformes Rivulidae South American Annuals
Cyprinodontiformes Aplocheilidae African Annuals
Cyprinodontiformes Profundulidae Profundulids
Cyprinodontiformes Fundulidae Killifishes
Cyprinodontiformes Valenciidae Valenciids
Cyprinodontiformes Anablepidae Cuatro ojos, Foureyed Fishes
Cyprinodontiformes Poeciliidae Livebearers, Guppies etc.
Cyprinodontiformes Goodaeidae Goodeids
Cyprinodontiformes Cyprinodontidae Pupfishes
Beloniformes Adrianichthyidae Ricefishes
Beloniformes Exocoetidae Flyingfishes
Beloniformes Hemiramphidae Halfbeaks
Beloniformes Belonidae Needlefishes
Beloniformes Scomberesocidae Sauries
Atheriniformes Atherinidae Grunions, Silversides, Topsmelts
Atheriniformes Dentatherinidae Dentatherinid
Atheriniformes Notocheiridae Surf Silversides
Atheriniformes Melanotaeniidae Rainbowfishes
Atheriniformes Pseudomugilidae Blue eyes
Atheriniformes Telmatherinidae Sailfin Silverbacks
Atheriniformes Phallostethidae Priapium Fishes
Stephanoberyciformes Stephanoberycidae Pricklefishes
Stephanoberyciformes Melamphaidae Bigscale Fishes, Ridgeheads
Stephanoberyciformes Gibberichthyidae Gibberfishes
Stephanoberyciformes Hispidoberycidae Bristlyskin
Stephanoberyciformes Rondeletiidae Orangemouth Whalefishes
Stephanoberyciformes Barbourisiidae Redvelvet Whalefish
Stephanoberyciformes Cetomimidae Flabby Whalefishes
Stephanoberyciformes Mirapinnadae Hairyfish, Tapetails
Stephanoberyciformes Megalomycteridae Bignose Fishes, Mosaicscale Fishes
Beryciformes Holocentridae Squirrelfishes, Soldier Fishes
Beryciformes Berycidae Alfoncinos
Beryciformes Anoplogasteridae Fangtooth Fishes
Beryciformes Monocentrididae Pineapple Fishes, Pinecone Fishes
Beryciformes Anomalopidae Flashlight Fishes, Lanterneye Fishes
Beryciformes Trachichthyidae Roughies, Slimeheads
Beryciformes Diretmidae Spinyfins
Zeiformes Parazenidae Parazen
Zeiformes Macrurocyttidae Macrurocyttids
Zeiformes Zeidae Dories
Zeiformes Oreosomatidae Oreos
Zeiformes Grammicolepididae Tinselfishes
Zeiformes Caproidae Boarfishes
Gasterosteiformes Hypoptychidae Sand Eel
Gasterosteiformes Aulorhynchidae Tubesnouts
Gasterosteiformes Gasterosteidae Sticklebacks
Gasterosteiformes Indostomidae Paradox Fish
Gasterosteiformes Pegasidae Seamoths
Gasterosteiformes Aulostomidae Trumpetfishes
Gasterosteiformes Fistulariidae Cornetfishes
Gasterosteiformes Macroramphosidae Snipefishes
Gasterosteiformes Centriscidae Razorfishes, Shrimpfishes
Gasterosteiformes Solenostomidae Ghost Pipefishes
Gasterosteiformes Sygnathidae Pipefishes, Seahorses
Synbranchiformes Synbranchidae Swampeels
Synbranchiformes Mastacembelidae Spiny Eels
Synbranchiformes Chaudhuriidae Chaudhuriids
Scorpaeniformes Scorpaenidae Scorpionfishes, Rockfishes, Stonefishes
Scorpaeniformes Caracanthidae Coral Crouchers
Scorpaeniformes Aploactinidae Velvetfishes
Scorpaeniformes Pataecidae Prowfishes
Scorpaeniformes Gnathanacanthidae Red Velvetfish
Scorpaeniformes Congiopodidae Horsefishes, Pigfishes
Scorpaeniformes Triglidae Gurnards, Sea Robins
Scorpaeniformes Dactylopteridae Helmet Gurnards, Flying Gurnards
Scorpaeniformes Platycephalidae Flatheads
Scorpaeniformes Bembridae Deepwater Flatheads
Scorpaeniformes Hoplichthyidae Ghost Flatheads, Spiny Flatheads
Scorpaeniformes Anoplopomatidae Sablefish, Skilfish
Scorpaeniformes Hexagrammidae Greenlings
Scorpaeniformes Zaniolepididae Combfishes
Scorpaeniformes Normanichthyidae Southern Sculpin
Scorpaeniformes Rhamphocottidae Grunt Sculpin
Scorpaeniformes Ereuniidae Deepwater Sculpins
Scorpaeniformes Cottidae Sculpins
Scorpaeniformes Comephoridae Baikal Oilfishes
Scorpaeniformes Abyssocottidae Abyssocottids
Scorpaeniformes Hemitripteridae Hemitripterids
Scorpaeniformes Psychrolutidae Blob Fishes, Fatheads
Scorpaeniformes Bathyluichthyidae Bathylutichthyids
Scorpaeniformes Agonidae Poachers
Scorpaeniformes Cyclopteridae Lumpfishes
Scorpaeniformes Liparidae Lumpsuckers, Snailfishes
Perciformes Ambassidae Glassfishes
Perciformes Acropomatidae Acropomatids
Perciformes Epigonidae Epigonids
Perciformes Scombropidae Gnomefishes
Perciformes Symphysanodontidae Symphysanodontids
Perciformes Caesioscorpididae Caesioscorpidids
Perciformes Polyprionidae Wreckfishes
Perciformes Dinopercidae Cavebasses
Perciformes Centropomidae Snooks
Perciformes Latidae Giant Perches
Perciformes Percichthyidae South Temperate Basses
Perciformes Moronidae North Temperate Basses
Perciformes Serranidae Groupers, Sea Basses
Perciformes Callanthiidae Rosey Perches
Perciformes Pseudochromidae Dottybacks
Perciformes Grammatidae Basslets
Perciformes Opistognathidae Jawfishes
Perciformes Plesiopidae Roundheads
Perciformes Notograptidae Bearded Snakeblennies
Perciformes Pholidichthyidae Convict Blennies
Perciformes Cepolidae Bandfishes
Perciformes Glaucosomatidae Pearl Perches
Perciformes Terapontidae Grunters
Perciformes Banjosidae Banjosids
Perciformes Kuhliidae Aholeholes
Perciformes Centrarchidae Sunfishes
Perciformes Percidae Darters, Perches
Perciformes Priacanthidae Bigeyes, Catalufas
Perciformes Apogonidae Cardinalfishes
Perciformes Dinolestidae Dinolestid
Perciformes Sillaginidae Smelt Whitings, Whitings
Perciformes Malacanthidae Tilefishes
Perciformes Labracoglossidae Labracoglossids
Perciformes Lactariidae False Trevallies
Perciformes Pomatomidae Bluefish, Tailors
Perciformes Menidae Moonfish
Perciformes Leiognathidae Ponyfishes, Slipmouths
Perciformes Bramidae Pomfrets
Perciformes Caristiidae Manefishes
Perciformes Arripidae Australian Salmons
Perciformes Emmelichthyidae Rovers
Perciformes Lutjanidae Emperors, Snappers
Perciformes Lobotidae Tripletails
Perciformes Gerreidae Mojarras, Silver Biddies
Perciformes Haemulidae Grunts
Perciformes Inermiidae Bonnetmouths
Perciformes Sparidae Breams, Porgies
Perciformes Centracanthidae Centracanthids
Perciformes Lethrinidae Emperors, Scavengers
Perciformes Nemipteridae Monocle Breams, Threadfin
Perciformes Sciaenidae Drums, Croakers
Perciformes Mullidae Goatfishes
Perciformes Monodactylidae Fingerfishes, Moonfishes
Perciformes Pempherididae Sweepers
Perciformes Leptobramidae Beachsalmon
Perciformes Bathyclupeidae Bathyclupeids
Perciformes Toxotidae Archerfishes
Perciformes Coracinidae Galjoenfishes
Perciformes Kyphosidae Seachubs
Perciformes Girellidae Blackfishes, Nibblers
Perciformes Scorpididae Halfmoons, Mado, Sweeps
Perciformes Microcanthidae Stripey
Perciformes Ephippidae Spadefishes
Perciformes Scatophagidae Scats
Perciformes Chaetodontidae Butterflyfishes
Perciformes Pomacanthidae Angelfishes
Perciformes Enoplosidae Oldwife
Perciformes Pentercerotidae Armourheads
Perciformes Oplegnathidae Knifejaws
Perciformes Icosteidae Ragfish
Perciformes Kurtidae Nurseryfishes
Perciformes Scombrolabracidae Scombrolabracid
Perciformes Nematistiidae Roosterfish
Perciformes Carangidae Jacks, Trevallies
Perciformes Echeneidae Remoras
Perciformes Rachycentridae Cobia, Black Kingfish
Perciformes Coryphaenidae Dolphins
Perciformes Cirrhitidae Hawkfishes
Perciformes Chironemidae Kelpfishes
Perciformes Aplodactylidae Aplodactylids
Perciformes Cheilodactylidae Morwongs
Perciformes Latrididae Trumpeters
Perciformes Mugilidae Mullets
Perciformes Polynemidae Threadfins
Perciformes Cichlidae Cichlids
Perciformes Embiotocidae Surfperches
Perciformes Pomacentridae Anemonefishes, Damselfishes
Perciformes Labridae Wrasses
Perciformes Odacidae Rock Whitings
Perciformes Scaridae Parrotfishes
Perciformes Bathymasteridae Ronquils
Perciformes Zoarcidae Eelpouts
Perciformes Stichaeidae Pricklebacks
Perciformes Cryptacanthodidae Wrymouths
Perciformes Pholididae Gunnels
Perciformes Anarchichadidae Wolffiishes
Perciformes Ptilichthyidae Quillfishes
Perciformes Zaproridae Prowfishes
Perciformes Scytalinidae Graveldiver
Perciformes Bovichtidae Thornfishes
Perciformes Nototheniidae Nototheniids
Perciformes Harpagiferidae Plunderfishes
Perciformes Bathydraconidae Antarctic Dragonfishes
Perciformes Channichthyidae Icefishes
Perciformes Chiasmodontidae Swallowers
Perciformes Champsodontidae Champsodontids
Perciformes Trichodontidae Sandfishes
Perciformes Trachinidae Weeverfish
Perciformes Uranoscopidae Stargazers
Perciformes Trichonotidae Sanddivers
Perciformes Creediidae Sandburrowers
Perciformes Leptoscopidae Leptoscopids
Perciformes Percophidae Duckbills
Perciformes Pinguipedidae Sandperches
Perciformes Cheimarrhichthyidae Torrentfish
Perciformes Ammodytidae Sandlances
Perciformes Tripterygiidae Triplfins
Perciformes Dactyloscopidae Sand Stargazers
Perciformes Labrisomidae Labrisomids
Perciformes Clinidae Kelpfishes, Kelp Blennies
Perciformes Chaenopsidae Tube Blennies
Perciformes Blenniidae Combtooth Blennies
Perciformes Rhyacichthyidae Loach Goby
Perciformes Odonotobutidae Freshwater Asian Gobies
Perciformes Gobiidae Gobies, Gudgeons, Sleepers
Perciformes Siganidae Rabbitfishes
Perciformes Luvaridae Louvar
Perciformes Zanclidae Moorish Idol
Perciformes Acanthuridae Surgeonfishes, Tangs
Perciformes Sphyraenidae Barracudas
Perciformes Gempylidae Snake Mackerels, Gemfishes
Perciformes Trichiuridae Cutlassfishes
Perciformes Scombridae Bonitos, Mackerels, Tunas
Perciformes Xiphiidae Swordfish
Perciformes Istiophoridae Billfishes
Perciformes Amarsipidae Amarsipids
Perciformes Centrolophidae Medusafishes
Perciformes Nomeidae Driftfishes
Perciformes Ariommatidae Ariommatids
Perciformes Tetragonuridae Squaretails
Perciformes Stromateidae Butterfishes
Perciformes Badidae Chameleonfish
Perciformes Nandidae Leaffishes
Perciformes Pristolepidae False Leaffishes
Perciformes Channidae Snakeheads
Perciformes Anabantidae Climbing Gouramies
Perciformes Belontiidae Gouramies
Perciformes Helostomatidae Kissing Gourami
Perciformes Osphronemidae Giant Gourami
Perciformes Luciocephalidae Pikehead
Pleuronectiformes Psettodidae Spiny Flatfishes
Pleuronectiformes Citharidae Citharids
Pleuronectiformes Bothidae Lefteye Flounders
Pleuronectiformes Pleuronectidae Righteye Flounders
Pleuronectiformes Cynoglossidae Tonguefishes, Tongue Soles
Pleuronectiformes Soleidae Soles
Pleuronectiformes Achiridae American Soles
Pleuronectiformes Achiropsettidae Southern flounders
Tetraodontiformes Triacanthodidae Spikefishes
Tetraodontiformes Triacanthidae Triplespins
Tetraodontiformes Balistidae Triggerfishes
Tetraodontiformes Monacanthidae Filefishes, Leatherjackets
Tetraodontiformes Aracanidae Robust boxfishes
Tetraodontiformes Ostraciidae Boxfishes, Cowfishes, Trunkfishes
Tetraodontiformes Triodontidae Pursefishes, Three Toothed Puffer
Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae Pufferfishes, Toados
Tetraodontiformes Diodontidae Porcupinefishes
Tetraodontiformes Molidae Molas, Ocean Sunfishes






Bibliography
 
The Fish Anatomy Menu
Anatomy Fins Blood Nerves Magnetism Swim-bladder
Skeleton Sight Scales Hearing Electricity Osmoregulation
Digestion Gills Smell Muscles Lateral Line Thermoregulation

 

 

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